Organic halides

Organic halides are substances derived from organic compounds by exchanging one or more hydrogens for halogen - F, Cl, Br, I.

Follow some examples below.

Halides can be classified according to the halogen that is in the carbon chain, as fluorides, chlorides, bromides iodides or mixed.

They can also be classified according to the number of halogen atoms in the molecule, such as monohalide, dihalide, trihalide, etc.

The most important classification is the great reactivity of two large groups, the alkyl halides and the aryl halides.

Alkyl halides

Its generic formula is:

R - X

R - alkyl group or alkyl radical
X - halogen

Alkyl halide is the organic compound having a halogen attached to a saturated carbon of an open chain hydrocarbon.


Arila Halide

Its generic formula is:

Ar - X

Ar - arila group
X - halogen

Aryl halide is the organic compound that has halogen attached directly to a benzene ring. Examples:


Organic halides are widely used as solvents in the manufacture of plastics, insecticides and refrigerant gas. The most important halide used as a solvent is CCl4, carbon tetrachloride, very toxic.

The BHC of molecular formula C6H6Cl6 It is used as insecticide.

Chloroform CCl3 It has been widely used as an anesthetic since 1847 in England. Today, it is no longer used for this purpose because it is very toxic.

The CCl Freons3, CCl2F2 and many others were used as refrigerant gas. Over time, it was found to damage the environment by destroying the ozone layer and reducing its production.

The DDT of Formula C14H9Cl5 It was a major insecticide widely used during World War II. Its production has been banned in several countries due to its high toxicity.


According to IUPAC, halogens are considered a branch that is linked to the main chain. Examples:

Bromo benzene chloro benzene

Complementary material: Download user submitted organic halide material Hebert Freitas, containing theory and exercises with the answers.