Working a Gas Consider a gas of mass m contained in a cylinder with base area A provided with a piston. When a quantity of heat Q is supplied to the system, it will expand under constant pressure as guaranteed by the Gay-Lussac Law and the piston will be displaced. As for mechanical systems, the work of the system will be given by the product of the force applied to the piston with the displacement of the piston in the cylinder: Thus, the work performed by a system, in a constant pressure transformation, is given by the product between the pressure and gas volume change.
Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was born in Como, Lombardy (present-day Italy), at a time when his family's standard of living had declined. Contrary to expectations, young Alessandro did not follow his ecclesiastical career. As a young man, he did not prove to be a prodigy boy. He began to speak only at the age of four and his family was convinced that he had mental problems.
André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836) was a French physicist, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician who made important contributions to the study of electromagnetism. He was born in Poleymieux, near Lyon, France in 1775. He was Professor of Analysis at the Polytechnic School of Paris and the Collège de France. In 1814 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955), a German physicist of Jewish origin, was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He is especially known for his theory of relativity, which he first expounded in 1905 when he was only 26 years old. His contributions to science were many. Relativity: Einstein's theory of relativity revolutionized scientific thinking with its new conceptions of time, space, mass, motion, and gravitation.
Born in 1623 in Clermont Ferrand, France, in the cradle of a family of magistrates, the young Blaise Pascal had been encouraged from early on to study by his father, who was very interested in mathematical sciences. At the age of eight, he was transferred to Paris, receiving teachings from the leading scholars of his day.
Alexander Graham Bell (1847 - 1922) was born on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was the second of three children of the couple Alexander Melville Bell and Eliza Grace Symonds. His family had a tradition and reputation as an expert in speech correction and training for the hearing impaired.
Georg Simon Ohm (1787 - 1854) was born in Bavaria, Germany. He worked as a secondary mathematics teacher at the Jesuit College in Cologne, but wanted to teach at the university. To this end, he was required, as proof of admission, to undertake unpublished research work. He chose to experiment with electricity and built his own equipment, including wires.
Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790) was the youngest of 17 children born to the two weddings of Josiah Franklin, a wax candle merchant. A journalist and typographer since she was 15, she started at her brother James's newspaper, "The New England Courant" in Boston. In 1729, he bought the Pennsylvania Gazette.
French physicist Charles de Coulomb (1736 - 1806) began his research in the field of electricity and magnetism to participate in a competition opened by the Académie des Sciences of Paris on the manufacture of magnetized needles. His studies led to the so-called Coulomb Law. Charles-Augustin de Coulomb was born in Angoulême on June 14, 1736.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 - 1894) was born on February 22, 1857 in Hamburg, during primary school he attended the science workshops of the school where he studied, showing interest in research. He entered an engineering college and a year later served the army for a year as well.
Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) was born on December 27, 1571 in southern Germany, within a Protestant family. With the help of a scholarship, he entered the University of Tübingen in 1589, where he learned Greek, Hebrew, astronomy, physics and mathematics. At an early age he became a mathematics teacher at a Protestant college in Austria and in 1596 published his first work, "Mysterium Cosmographicum".
Having lived around the 3rd century BC, there are not many records about Archimedes' life. What is known is that he was born in 287 BC in Sirucasa, an eastern Greek city-state at the time and is now the region of Sicily, and that his father was an astronomer named Phidias. According to the few records about his life, Archimedes would have studied in Alexandria as a young man, where he would have met Euclid and endeavored to seek physical truths, especially in the field of mechanics, where he developed great works of war engineering at the time.
Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736 - 1813) was a Franco-Italian mathematician and astronomer. Son of a civil servant, was born in Turin, Italy. Although his father wanted him to be a lawyer, Lagrange was drawn to mathematics and astronomy after reading a paper by astronomer Halley. At sixteen he began to study mathematics on his own, and at nineteen he was assigned to a teaching post at the Royal Artillery School in Turin.
English physicist and chemist (22/9 / 1791-25 / 8/1867). Finder of electromagnetic induction. Born in Newington, the son of a blacksmith, he starts working at 14 as a bookbinder apprentice. He dedicates himself early to the reading of scientific works. Get in touch with the discoveries of science through the conferences of renowned chemist Sir Humphry Davy, who holds the most advanced knowledge available at the time.
At age sixteen, James began studying mathematics, natural philosophy, and logic at the University of Edinburgh. In 1850 he moved to Cambridge, joining Peterhouse College. Because it was easier to obtain a scholarship, he moved to Trinity College, which had been attended by Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727).
Calorimetry is the part of physics that studies heat, heat exchanges, calorimeters and the propagation of heat. This part of physics is responsible for the development of temperature conservation equipment, such as thermos bottles, which keeps liquids at conserved temperatures. It is also due to the knowledge of calorimetry that explains the physical states of matter due to temperature and the knowledge of natural phenomena such as wind and air masses.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847 - 1931) was the most prolific inventor in American history. He has filed 1093 patents in various fields, from light to telecommunications, sound, movies, batteries, etc. His role as inventor was evident both at his Menio Park and West Orange laboratories in New Jersey, as well as at over 300 companies set up around the world, many bearing his name, to manufacture and market their inventions.
The study of the terrestrial magnetic field made it possible to understand navigation instruments with greater precision, such as compasses and, consequently, the study of magnets and magnets. It was also due to the advances of these studies that the electromagnets were developed, which enabled the automation of various parts of industrial processes.
Nikolaj Kopernik (1473 - 1543), who would later sign his works with the Latin version Nicolaus Copernicus, was born on February 14, 1473, in the small town of Torun, on the Vistula River, Poland. At the age of ten, Nicholas and his three older brothers lost their father. Out of custom and charity, a rich and powerful uncle took over the orphans.
The study of the tilt allows the creation of equipment with components perfectly fitted and fastened without the use of screws or any other adherent, as it can dilate the place where the part should be placed and then reduce the total temperature. Also, due to the study of dilatations, it was possible to create protection equipment against the increase of temperature in electronic equipment.
Robert Hooke (1635 - 1703) was an English scientist, essentially mechanical and meteorologist, born at Freshwater, on the Isle of Wight, who formulated the theory of planetary motion and the first theory of the elastic properties of matter. The son of a humble Protestant pastor, he began as a choirman at the Oxford Church of Christ and went to study at Oxford University (1653), where he began as a laboratory assistant to Robert Boyle (1655), and later his collaborator in gas studies, proving to be an expert experimenter and have a strong inclination for mechanics.